B

    Bandwidth

    -The capacity of a telecom line to carry signals. The necessary bandwidth is the amount of spectrum required to transmit the signal without distortion or loss of information. High bandwidth networks can carry more types of data simultaneously than low bandwidth networks.

    BEC

    Broadband Enhancement Council, WV

    Bit

    A single piece of binary information, a 1 or a 0, represented in electric circuits by a connected circuit or a disconnected circuit respectively. The speed of Internet connections are measured in bits per second, or the total number of ones or zeros transmitted in a second. As the speed of Internet connections has increased, bits are becoming more commonly addressed as Kilobits (1,000 bits) (Kilobits per second -Kbps), Megabits (1,000,000 bits) (Megabits per second -Mbps), and even Gigabits (1,000,000,000 bits) (Gigabits per second -Gbps).

    BPL (Broadband over Powerline)-

    Delivery of broadband over the existing low-and medium_voltage electric power distribution network at speeds that are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds.

    Broadband -

    The term for evolving digital technologies that provide a signal switched facility offering integrated access to voice, data, video, and interactive delivery services.

    Byte

    In the prevalent computing paradigm, 8 bits compose one byte, whereas bytes represent a single character like the letter 'a.' The size of computer files is often measured in bytes, indicating the total number of characters in that file. Given that file sizes are increasing, larger orders of magnitude are often used such as Kilobytes (KB) (1,000 bytes), Megabytes (MB) (1,000,000 bytes), Gigabytes (GB) (1,000,000,000 bytes), and even Terabytes (TB) (1,000,000,000,000 bytes).

    Backbone

    The part of a communications network that connects to the commodity internet and handles major traffic. It employs the highest-speed transmission paths and typically covers the greatest distance for a regional network. Smaller networks are connected to the backbone via short-haul fiber lines and/or a variety of "last mile'' technologies.

    BPL

     (Broadband over Powerline)-Delivery of broadband over the existing low-and medium­voltage electric power distribution network at speeds that are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds.

    BPL

     (Broadband over Powerline)-Delivery of broadband over the existing low-and medium­voltage electric power distribution network at speeds that are comparable to DSL and cable modem speeds.

C

    Cable Modem

    -Enables cable operators to provide broadband using the same coaxial cables that deliver to television. Most are external devices with two connections: the cable wall outlet, and a computer.

    CAEZ

    Appalachian empowerment zone

    CDBG

    Community Development Block Grant, a grant program sponsored by US Dept of Housing and Urban Development

    CLEC

    Competitive Local Exchange Carrier

    Co-location Facility

    A room or building of an organization where network equipment owned by a customer or competitor can be placed.

    Community Anchor Institutions-

    Schools, libraries, medical and healthcare providers, public safety institutions and other support agencies.

    CPE

    Customer Premise Equipment

D

    Dark Fiber

    Unused fiber-optic cable, installed as extra lines to alleviate future reconstruction. Dark strands can be leased to individuals or companies to establish optical connections among their own locations. In this case, the fiber is neither controlled by nor connected to the phone company. Instead, the company or individual provides the necessary components to make it functional.

    Dial-up connection

    A data communications link that is established when the communication equipment dials a phone number and negotiates a connection with the equipment on the other end of the link. It provides the ability to dial-up the Internet, at speeds up to 56 Kilobits per second (Kbps), via a modem over standard telephone lines.

    DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

    -Broadband internet service delivered over telephone wires, but separate from telephone service. One can utilize DSL while on the telephone.

    DSx (Digital Signal)

    -A classification of digital circuits. The DS technically refers to the rate and format of the signal, while the T designation refers to the equipment providing the signals. In practice, "DS" and "T" are used synonymously; for example, DSl and Tl, DS3 and T3.

    Demand Study

    need a little help here

E

    Ethernet -

    The protocol which governs the transmission of packets on a LAN.

F

    Fiber Optic Cable

    -A technology that converts electrical signals carrying data to light and sends the light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. Fiber optic transmits data at speeds far exceeding current DSL or cable modem speeds, typically by tens or even hundreds of Giga bits per second.

    First Mile

    The fiber backbone is the part of a communications network that acts like the central nervous system, a central hub from which all parts of the network extend.

G

    Gigabit

    -This refers to 1,000,000,000 bits of binary information, ls or Os, represented in electric circuits by a connected circuit or a disconnected circuit respectively.

    Gigabits per second (Gbps) -

    The transmission rate of 1,000,000,000 bits of binary information per second.

H

    HUD

    Department of Housing and Urban Development

K

    Kilobit

    This refers to 1,000 bits of binary information, l's or 0's; represented in electric circuits by a connected circuit or a disconnected circuit.

    Kilobits per second (Kbps)

    The data transmission rate of 1,000 bits of binary information per second.

L

    Last Mile

    The final leg of delivering connectivity from a service provider to a customer.

    Local Area Network (LAN)

    A network of computers in proximity, within an office or organization.

M

    Megabit

    1,000,000 bits of binary information, ls or Os; represented in electric circuits by a connected circuit or disconnected circuit.

    Megabits per second (Mbps) -

    The data transmission rate of 1,000,000 bits of binary information per second.

    Middle mile

    Network infrastructure that does not deliver services to customers, but which provides for interoffice transport, backhaul, connectivity, or special access to service providers.

    P3

    Public Private Partnership

    Middle Mile

    Network infrastructure that does not deliver services to customers, but which provides for interoffice transport, backhaul, connectivity, or special access to service providers.

    Last Mile

    The final leg of delivering connectivity from a service provider to a customer.

    MUX

    A fiber cabinet

    Milimeter Wave

    A spectrum of frequence capable of transmitting data.

N

    Network

    A system of interlinking computers, each with the capability to communicate with each other.

O

    Open Access Network

    A broadband telecommunications network that allows for wholesale access to multiple service providers.

P

    PER

    Preliminary Engineering Project

    POP (Point of Presence)

    The point at which a line from a long distance carrier (IXC) connects to the line of the local telephone company or to the user if the local company is not involved. For on line services and Internet providers, the POP is the local exchange users dial into via modem.

    Pro-Forma

    A financial statement term.

Q

    Quality of Service (QoS)

    A measure of performance for a transmission system that reflects its transmission quality and service availability.

R

    RC

    Roane County

    Ring

    Fiber-optic networks are often composed of large organically shaped rings of fiber. The ring formation creates redundancy, such that if the ring is broken at one point, all subscribers will still have service because traffic can be rerouted.

    RUS

    Rural Utilities Service

    RFI

    Request for Information

    RFP

    Request for Proposal

    A formal solicitation of proposals.

S

    Satellite-

    Wireless broadband used in remote or sparsely populated areas, with variations in speed and availability based on angle, terrain, and weather. Speeds are typically slower than DSL and cable modem wireline access, but faster than dial-up.

    Served Area

    Service area where more than half of households have broadband access that meets defined speed requirements and subscription rates that exceed 40%.

T

    T3

    A 44.736 Mbps point-to-point dedicated line provided by the telephone companies. A T3 line provides 672 64-Kbps voice or data channels.

    Tl

    A 1.544 Mbps point-to-point dedicated, digital circuit provided by the telephone companies, typically used in campus and office building networks. Tl carries both voice and data.

U

    Underserved Area

    Service area, consisting of one or more contiguous census blocks, where half the households lack access to minimum internet speeds of at least 25 Mpbs, or areas where less than 40% of households subscribe to any service.

    Unserved Area

    Service area, made up of one or more contiguous census blocks, where at least 90% of households lack access to facilities-based broadband service, either wireline or wireless.

W

    Wi-Fi

    Wireless Fidelity refers to the transfer of data using wireless transmitters and receivers which use unlicensed radio spectrums. Wi-Fi equipment is now included in portable computers, handheld devices and smart phones.

    Wireless

    Connects a home or business to the Internet using an over-the-air radio link between the customer and the service provider's facility. Wireless broadband can be mobile or fixed.

I

    Internet Exchange

    An Internet exchange point is a physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers and Content Delivery Networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks.  Source: Wikipedia.